Learning Outcomes and Course Objectives
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Learning Outcomes for Chemistry 201
At the completion of this course, the successful student will be able to:
- Solve quantitative chemistry problems and demonstrate reasoning clearly and completely. Integrate multiple ideas in the problem solving process.
- Describe, explain and model chemical and physical processes at the molecular level in order to explain macroscopic properties.
- Classify matter by its state and bonding behavior using the Periodic Table as a reference.
- Apply important theories such as the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases or the Quantum Mechanical Theory of the Atom to the solution of general chemistry problems.
- Perform general chemistry laboratory experiments using standard chemistry glassware and equipment and demonstrate appropriate safety procedures.
- Record, graph, chart and interpret data obtained from experimentation and use that information to correctly identify/analyze assigned unknown substances.
Course Objectives for Chemistry 201
At the completion of this course, the successful student will be adequately prepared to take the subsequent course: General Chemistry II (Chemistry 203), and be able to do the following:
Topics marked with (R), review, should have been covered by the student in a Basic Chemistry course.
- (R) Describe the scientific method.
- (R) Define and explain the terms: law, hypothesis, and theory.
- (R) Use exponential notation.
- (R) Do mathematical calculations involving significant figures.
- (R) Differentiate between mass and weight.
- (R) Convert from the English system to the metric system (& vise versa) common units of length, mass, volume, and temperature.
- (R) Use the metric system in calculations.
- (R) Solve problems using density as the relationship between mass and volume.
Properties of Matter
- (R) Use and define (describe or explain) basic chemical concepts with respect to properties of matter: physical states of matter, physical and chemical properties of matter, physical and chemical changes, the law of conservation of mass, the law of conservation of energy, the law of definite composition, classification of elements.
- Define colloid. Give examples of various types of colloids: emulsion, sol, gel, foam...
- (R) Distinguish between pure substances (elements and compounds) and mixtures (homogeneous and heterogeneous).
- List the names and chemical symbols of at least 48 elements.
Atomic Theory and Structure, Molecular Theory and Structure
- (R) Distinguish between ionic and molecular compounds.
- (R) Determine the number and types of atoms represented in a chemical formula.
- Use basic chemical nomenclature for inorganic compounds.
- Write the formulas of binary ionic compounds, common binary molecular compounds, and at least 12 common acids, 4 common bases, inorganic ternary compounds using 15 common polyatomic ions.
- Use oxidation numbers to distinguish oxidation states of metals in compounds.
- (R) Balance chemical equations given the formulas of the reactants and products.
- Calculate the oxidation number of each element, given the formulas of the reactants and products.
- Balance redox equations using oxidation numbers.
- (R) List the basic principles of Dalton's atomic theory and indicate how the theory has been further developed in this century.
- (R) State the basic properties of the subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons.
- (R) Describe the Rutherford atom.
- (R) Define atomic number, mass number, and isotopes.
- (R) Define the atomic mass unit and Avogadro's number.
- (R) Use the conversion factor from grams to amu in simple calculations.
- Calculate the average atomic mass from isotopic masses and percent abundances.
- (R) Apply the terms: metals, nonmetals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, metalloids, transition metals, noble gases, halogens, and inner transition metals to the arrangement of elements in the periodic table.
- (R) Describe the arrangement of the elements in the periodic table.
- (R) Use the periodic table to predict formulas of compounds.
- (R) Define the terms anion, cation, and polyatomic ion.
- Describe how ionic and covalent bonds are formed.
- Calculate the oxidation number of each element in a chemical formula.
- (R) Calculate the percent composition of compounds, given the formulas.
- (R) Calculate the empirical formula, given the percent composition.
- (R)Calculate the empirical formula of compound given the mass of the sample, the mass of CO2 and mass of H2O produced in a combustion reaction.
- (R) Distinguish between empirical and molecular formulas.
- (R) Explain the concepts of the chemical quantity, the mole, and relate it to counting of atoms and molecules.
- (R) Convert mass in grams to moles, formula units, molecules (and/or atoms) using atomic weights, formula weights, and molecular weights.
- List the basic rules which predict whether a salt is soluble in water.
Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry
- Write the balanced equations describing several examples of combustion, acid-base, precipitation, and exchange reactions. Write the equations in the molecular, total ionic and net ionic format.
- Classify reactions according to type: synthesis, combustion, decomposition, single replacement, double displacement (metathesis), redox, acid/base, precipitation.
- (R) Explain the information given by the balanced chemical equations.
- Perform stoichiometric calculations from a given chemical equation.
- Use calculations determine the limiting reagent, how much excess reagent is left, and the theoretical and percentage yield of each product.
- List the properties of solutions and distinguish true solutions from heterogeneous and colloidal mixtures.
- Classify compounds as strong electrolytes, weak electrolytes, non-electrolytes. Classify compounds as acids, bases, and salts.
- Define solubility, percent concentration, molarity, mole fraction, and molality.
- Explain factors affecting solubility and the rate of dissolving.
- Write molecular, total ionic and net ionic equations which show that the solution is the reaction medium.
- Use percent concentration, molarity, and molality in stoichiometric calculations.
- List the basic principles of the Kinetic Molecular Theory of gases.
- (R) Describe the measurement of pressure using a barometer.
- (R) Use four kinds of pressure units in calculations and convert from one to another.
- Calculate pressure, volumes, and temperatures of gases using Boyle's law, Charles' Law, the Combined Gas Law, and Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures.
- (R) Calculate Kelvin temperatures from Centigrade and vice versa.
- (R) Define standard conditions of temperature and pressure.
- Use the Ideal Gas Law to calculate density and molecular weight of a gas.
- Use the gas laws in chemical stoichiometric calculations.
- Define and distinguish between diffusion and effusion.
- Perform calculations of relative atomic mass vs speed of effusion.
- Predict changes in the Boltzman energy distribution vs temperature
- (R) Differentiate between heat and temperature.
- (R) Do simple calculations of heat changes using specific heat.
- Define and use the terms standard state, standard enthalpy change, molar enthalpy of formation.
- Calculate changes in enthalpy using Hess's Law and standard enthalpies of formation.
- Interpret energy of activation and enthalpy changes from a plot of energy vs. progress of reaction.
Energy and Light
- Define and explain the terms electromagnetic radiation, wavelength, frequency, wave amplitude, spectrum, and nodes.
- Describe the Bohr hydrogen atom; describe the hydrogen atom in terms of simple quantum mechanics.
- Perform calculations using the equation λν = c.
- Explain the source of the atomic line spectra.
- Describe the properties of light.
Molecular Orbital Theory
- Write electronic configurations of the first 50 elements; show the diagrams of their electronic structure and indicate the spin of each electron.
- Sketch the shape of the s, p and d orbitals.
- Identify the 4 quantum numbers for any electron in an atom.
- Predict which atoms or ions are paramagnetic and which are diamagnetic using the electronic configurations.
- State the Pauli Exclusion Principle, Hund's rule, and the Aufbau principle.
- (R) Define ionization energy and be able to rank using the periodic table.
- Use ionization energy trends to predict the stability of electronic configurations and the tendency for outer shell electrons to undergo changes in order to form compounds.
- (R) Define electronegativity: show how it varies with respect to the periodic table.
- (R) Use electronegativity to estimate the polarity of bonds.
- Show the trends of atomic and ionic sizes on the periodic table.
- State the octet rule, including exclusions.
- Write Lewis electron dot structures for simple covalent compounds and polyatomic ions.
- Use double and triple bonds to show structures of molecules and ions; use resonance to describe equivalent bonds.
- Use the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion theory to describe electron pairs geometry, molecular geometry, hybridization, and bond angles.
- Predict the polarity of bonds and molecules.
- Define bond order and bond dissociation energy; use bond energies to estimate reaction enthalpies.
- Calculate the formal change of an atom in a molecule or ion, and use it to predict the most reasonable resonance structures.
- Calculate enthalpy of a reaction from bond enthalpies.
- Explain the difference between oxidation number and formal change.
- Explain simple valence bond theory.
- Use the concepts of orbital overlap, sigma and pi bonds, hybrid orbitals to explain the strength and orientation of covalent bonds.
- Draw molecular orbital energy-level diagrams for diatomic molecules.
- Identify intermolecular forces such as ionic, polar covalent, Van der Waal's in substances.
- Identify triple point, critical point and various phases on a phase diagram of a pure substance.
- Perform calculations of enthalpies of vaporization and fusion from heating and cooling curves.
- Discuss potential and kinetic energy for matter in various states.
Properties of Solutions
- Calculate and interconvert various concentration units such as molarity, molality, percent by mass, percent by volume, mole fraction, ppm, ppb.
- Use molarity in calculations concerning the dilution of solutions.
- Explain at least two examples of colligative properties.
- Calculate the freezing point depression and the boiling point elevation due to the addition of a nonvolatile molecular solute to a pure solvent.
Acids and Bases
- List at least four properties each for acids and bases.
- Explain the behavior of acids and bases in terms of the Arrhenius and Brønsted/Lowry theories.
- Write equations for acids and bases showing conjugated acid/base pairs.
- List at least five common strong acids and five common strong bases.
- Given an acid, write the formula of the conjugate base, and vice versa.
- Write complete equations for at least two examples of each of the following reactions: acid + base, acid + metal, acid + metal oxide, acid + carbonate.
- Given the formula of a salt, write the formulas of the acid and the base which would react to form the salt.
- Distinguish between electrolytes and non-electrolytes, strong and weak electrolytes. List at least three examples of each.
- Define pH. Given a pH value, state whether the solution is acidic, basic, or neutral.
- Given a pH value calculate the H+ concentration, and vice versa.
- Estimate pH and pOH values without the use of a calculator given H+ concentration and/or OH- concentration.
- Given a pOH value calculate the OH- concentration, and vice versa.
- Convert from H3O+ concentration to pH then to pOH then to OH- concentration.